squash

Scientific Name and Introduction: Three species of the Cucurbitaceae family produce edible fruit that are
harvested when physiologically mature. These are pumpkin or acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo L.); Winter
squash or giant pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne ex Lam.); and crookneck squash, tropical pumpkin
(calabaza), or butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata [Duchesne ex Lam.] Duchesne ex Poir.). Mature fruit
are harvested in the Fall, and some have the potential to be stored for many months. The distinction
between pumpkins and Winter squash is culinary rather than taxonomical. Pumpkins have coarser, stronger
flavored flesh and are used for pies. In the U.S. they are also used for decoration as Halloween
jack-o-lanterns or for their edible seeds. Winter squash have finer textured and milder flavored flesh. They
are cooked and served as vegetables, and are commonly used for ‘pumpkin’ pies. The C. moschata tropical
pumpkin or calabaza is a staple food in the American tropics and is prepared in many ways that overlap the
above definitions of pumpkin and squash (Daniel, 1995).
Quality Characteristics and Criteria: Pumpkins and Winter squash should be fully mature, with hard
rinds and, except for some striped varieties, solid external color. Flesh of good quality pumpkins and
Winter squash is bright yellow or orange with fine, moist texture and high solids, sugars, and starch
(Cantwell and Suslow, 1998); overmature flesh can become dry and stringy.
Horticultural Maturity Indices: Horticultural maturity coincides with physiological maturity and is
recognized externally by corking of the stem (initiation of abscission), loss of rind surface sheen or gloss,
groundspot yellowing, and die-back of the tendril nearest to the fruit. The rind should resist thumbnail
pressure. Development of intense yellow or orange flesh color (due to synthesis of carotenoids) and
accumulation of sugars and solids are indicators of maturity that are highly correlated with sensory quality
(Daniel, et al., 1995; Harvey et al., 1997). Delaying harvest is not recommended as it increases occurrence
of storage rots (Hawthorne, 1990), and sensory quality improves more in storage than on the plant
(Edelstein et al., 1989; Harvey et al., 1997).
Grades, Sizes and Packaging: Grades are U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 and are based on similar varietal
characteristics (shape, texture, and color), maturity, and freedom from damage and decay. There are no
standard sizes for pumpkins and Winter squashes, although minimum and maximum weights of individual
fruit within packages may be specified. Packages are commonly mesh or burlap bags and one- or two-piece
fiberboard cartons containing 23 kg (50 lb); pumpkins and Winter squash are also shipped in 19-kg (42-lb,
1 1/9 bushel) crates and 360- to 410-kg (800 to 900-lb) bulk bin cartons.
Pre-cooling conditions: Room-cooled or loaded directly into refrigerated trucks and containers.

Optimum Storage Conditions: All pumpkins and Winter squashes should be well matured, carefully
handled, and free from injury or decay. Pumpkins and Winter squashes are placed on racks, in bulk bins,
or in baskets and are often held in ventilated or common storage in production areas. Recommended
conditions for storage of pumpkins and Winter squashes are 10 to 13 °C (50 to 55 °F). At higher
temperatures of 15 to 20 °C (59 to 68 °F), green varieties will become undesirably yellow and acquire a
stringiness of the flesh. Fruit are chilling sensitive (see below). The RH should be 50 to 70%. Higher RH
promotes decay while lower RH causes excess weight loss and texture deterioration (Ryall and Lipton,
1979). The fruit surface should be kept dry, and storage rooms should have good air circulation (Holmes,

Pumpkins generally do not keep as well as hard-shelled Winter squashes. Most cultivars of Winter
squash and pumpkins as well as the tropical pumpkins cannot be stored for more than 2 to 3 mo. Acorn-type
squashes, such as ‘Table Queen,’ can be kept 5 to 8 weeks at 10 °C (50 °F). The popular Butternut squash
can be kept 2 to 3 mo at 10 °C (50 °F). It is often stored longer, but spoilage and shrinkage increase. Weight
loss should be kept below 15% to minimize development of hollow neck (Francis and Thomson, 1965).
Turban and Buttercup squashes can be kept 3 mo. Good quality Hubbard squash can be stored 6 mo at 10
to 13 °C (50 to 55 °F) and 70% RH. A 15% loss in weight after 6 mo is about average (Guba, 1950).
Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Considerations: A CA of 1% O2 + 7% CO2 was recommended for
Buttercup squash (Prange and Harrison, 1993). Reduced O2 and elevated CO2 maintained green color,
while elevated CO2 reduced ‘white mealy breakdown’ and decay was lower in 7% CO2 than other CA
treatments. There were no beneficial effects of 5% O2 + either 5% or 10% CO2 on decay of Spaghetti
squash (Lin and Saltveit, 1997). Decay was actually greater in CA than air in both cases due to higher RH
and was reduced when CaCl2 was used to absorb moisture. Control of RH is critical in CA storage.
Retail Outlet Display Considerations: Can be displayed in ambient conditions.
Chilling Sensitivity: Both pumpkins and Winter squashes develop chilling injury at < 10 °C (50 °F).
Storage at 0 to 4 °C (32 to 39 °F) inhibits yellowing, but causes sunken pits on the fruit surface and loss of
flavor. Alternaria rot develops on chilled squashes after removal from storage (McColloch, 1962).
Depending on cultivar, chilling injury symptoms develop after 1 mo at 5 °C (41 °F) or several mo at 10 °C
(50 °F) (Cantwell and Suslow, 1998).
Ethylene Production and Sensitivity: Pumpkins and Winter squash produce only trace amounts of
ethylene, but wounding greatly increases ethylene production (Hyodo et al., 1993). Hubbard squash and
other dark-green-skinned squashes should not be stored near apples, as the ethylene from apples may cause
the skin to turn orange-yellow (Yeager et al., 1945). Ethylene may also cause stem abscission; especially
in less mature fruit (Cantwell and Suslow, 1998).
Respiration Rates:
Temperature mg CO2 kg-1 h-1
12 °C 88 to 110 (Buttercup)
25 °C 61 to 121 (Butternut)
To get mL kg-1 h-1, divide the mg kg-1 h-1 rate by 2.0 at 0 °C (32 °F), 1.9 at 10 °C (50 °F), and 1.8 at 20 °C
(68 °F). To calculate heat production, multiply mg kg-1 h-1 by 220 to get BTU per ton per day or by 61 to
get kcal per metric ton per day. Data for Buttercup are from Irving et al. (1997); data for Butternut are from
L.L. Morris (unpublished).
Physiological Disorders: Damaged areas on fruit turn brown, detracting from their appearance. Pumpkins
and Winter squash are susceptible to water loss at the recommended 50 to 70% RH, but low RH is necessary
to minimize decay. Yellowing can be a problem for green Winter squash varieties and is exacerbated by
over-maturity, high storage temperatures, and ethylene exposure.
Postharvest Pathology: Decay is the primary cause of storage losses of pumpkins and Winter squash.
Numerous fungi cause storage rots including species of Aspergillus, Colletotrichum (anthracnose),
Didymella, Fusarium, Mycosphaerella (black rot), Rhizopus, and Sclerotinia (Abdel-Rahim, 1988;
Arvayo-Ortiz et al., 1994; Guba, 1950; Hawthorne, 1988; Rath et al., 1990; Vigliola, 1993). Alternaria rot
develops on chill-damaged fruit (McColloch, 1962). Delaying harvest of Buttercup squash 2 weeks

increased fungal storage rots (Hawthorne, 1990). Infection occurs through wounds and natural openings in
the surface. Therefore, careful handling to minimize mechanical damage is recommended to minimize
storage rots (Guba, 1950). Less rot will develop in the Hubbard squash if stems are completely removed
before storage (Yeager et al., 1945). Hot water at 60 °C (140 °F) for 2 min reduced storage rots (Francis and
Thomson, 1965); lower temperatures were not effective (Arvayo-Ortiz et al., 1994; Hawthorne, 1989).
Quarantine Issues: None
Suitability as Fresh-cut Product: Some large Winter squash are cut into sections and seeds removed for
retail sale.
Special Considerations: A 10- to 20-day curing period at 24 to 27 °C (75 to 81 °F) before storage can
harden the rind of pumpkins and Winter squashes (Gorini and Testoni, 1978). However, in New York,
curing for 3 weeks at 27 °C (81 °F) to heal mechanical injuries and to ripen immature specimens proved
unnecessary (Platenius et al., 1934; Schales and Isenberg, 1963). Curing Butternut, Hubbard, and Quality
squashes was of no value but not harmful, whereas curing Table Queen was detrimental to skin color,
texture, and taste (Schales and Isenberg, 1963). Cured Table Queen also decayed more rapidly than
non-cured fruit.